Chapter 22


1. Complete the following nuclear equations:

a) 21884Po ---> 42He + ??

b) 25399Es + 42He ---> 10n + ???

c) 14261Pm + ?? ---> 14260Nd

2. How is nuclear stability related to neutron-proton ratio?

3. Why do unstable nuclides undergo nuclear reactions?

4. Complete the following nuclear equations:

a) 18775Re + ?? ---> 18875Re + 11H

b) 94Be + 42He ---> ?? + 10n

c) 2211Na + ?? ---> 2210Ne


1. the half life of polonium-210 is 138.4 days. How many milligrams of polonium-210 remain after 415.2 days if you start with 2.0 mg of the isotope? (0.25 mg)

2. Assuming a half life of 1599 years, how many years will be needed for the decay of 15/16 of a given amount of radium-226? (6396 years)

3. The half life of radon-222 is 3.824 days. after what time will one fourth of a given amount of radon remain? (7.648 days)

4. The half life of cobalt-60 is 10.47 min. How many milligrams of cobalt-60 remain after 104.7 min if you start with 10.0 mg? (0.00977 mg)


1. a) what are the different types of radioactive decay?
b) List the types of radioactive decay that involve conversion of particles.

2. what fraction of a given sample of radioactive nuclide remains after four half lives?

3. When does a decay series end?

4. Distinguish between natural and artificial radioactive nuclides.


1. a) What is required to shield alpha particles.
b) Why are these materials effective?

2. a) What is the average exposure of people living in the US to environmental background radiation?
b) How does this relate to the maximum permissible dose?

3. What device is used to measure the radiation exposure of people working with radiation?

4. Explain why nuclear radiation can be used to preserve food.

5. Explain how nuclar waste is contained, stored, and disposed of.


1. Distinguish between nuclear fission and nuclear fusion.

2. Define chain reaction.

3. List the five main components of a nuclear power plant.