LINKS TO FIGURES AND DIAGRAMS HAVE BEEN BROKEN TO COMPLY WITH COPYRIGHT LAWS.
Measurements and Calculations
I: Scientific Method
Scientific method - definition
4 Steps in the scientific method
A: Observing and Collecting Data
involves making measurements and collecting data
descriptive data - qualitative or non numeric
quantitative - numerical data
Experimenting - definition
The use of systems to learn more about matter.
B: Formulating a Hypothesis
hypothesis - definition
make generalizations based on the data
organize data in tables
analyze data using statistics
use graphs and computers
use generalizations to formulate a hypothesis
a hypothesis serves as a basis for
a) making predictions and
b) for carrying out further experiments
C: Testing a Hypothesis
requires experimentation that provides data to support or refute a hypothesis;
Figure 2-3 page 31
If experimentation does not support the hypothesis it must be modified or discarded.
If hypothesis holds true then a model is developed.
May be visual, verbal, or mathematical.
May or may not become part of a theory.
Successful theories need to be able to predict the results of many new experiments.
Examples: atomic theory, kinetic molecular theory
II: Units of Measurement
Measurement consists of a number and a unit.
This does not represents a quantity. A teaspoon represents a unit of measurement. The quantity is volume.
Early standards: foot, inch
A: SI Measurement
Adopted in 1960.
Seven base units and then derived units.
Standards of measurements - definition.
Ways of writing numbers. e.g. 100 000 not 100,000
Know table 2-1 page 34
Know table 2-2 page 35
B: SI Base Units
base unit with or without prefix
equivalent to 2.2 pounds
gram can be more useful in some instances
balance v scale
equivalent to 39.37 inches
C: Derived SI Units
know table 2-3 page 36
Derived units - definition
Some combination units are given their own names e.g. a pascal (Pa)
volume - definition
100 cm in a meter
1 cubic meter = 100 x 100 x 100 = 1 000 000 cubic centimeters
1 cubic decimeter (dm) = 1 liter (L)
1 cubic decimeter = 1000 cubic centimeters
therefore 1 milliliter (mL) = 1 cubic centimeter (cc)
density = mass/volume or m/v
units are kg/cubic meter -- inconvenient
usually g/cubic centimeter or g/milliliter -- for solids and liquids
usually kg/cubic meter or g/Liter for gases
density is a physical property
intensive property - can be one bit of information used to identify a substance
table 2-4 page 38
sample problem 2-1 page 39
D: Conversion Factors
conversion factor - definition
whether we write 4 quarters/ one dollar or
one dollar/4 quarters they are both equal to 1.
Thus we can use either one in our calculation -- which one is determined by what unit we want to cancel.
General format = given measurement x conversion factor
1. Deriving Conversion Factors
You can derive conversion factors if you know the relationship between the units you have and the unit you want. SEE TABLE 2-1 p 34 & TABLE 2-2 p 35
Sample problem 2-2 p 41
III: Using Scientific Measurements
A: Accuracy and Precision
Accuracy - definition
Precision - definition
Figure 2-8 page 44
1. Percent Error
formula for percent error
positive value if the accepted value is greater than experiment value
negative value if the accepted value is smaller than the experimental value
sample problem 2-3 page 45
2. Error in Measurement
a) skill of person doing the measurement
b) conditions under which measurement is done
c) the actual measuring instrument
Estimating because of the limitation of the instrument.
B: Significant Figures
significant figures - definition
figure 2-9 page 46
All digits including the uncertain one are significant.
Usually, the final digit is uncertain but significant.
Insignificant digits are never reported.
1. Determining the Number of Significant Figures
No zeroes: all digits shown are significant.
Have zeroes: position of zero is important.
Table 2-5 page 47
Sample problem 2-4 page 47
Important when doing calculations - especially if using a calculator.
Can't show more significant figures than necessary.
Table 2-6 page 48 - skip last three rules
3. Addition or Subtraction with Significant Figures
When adding or subtracting decimals, the answer must have the same number of digits to the right of the decimal point as there are in the measurement having the fewest digits to the right of the decimal point.
4. Multiplication and Division with Significant Figures
e.g. calculating density using mass of 3.05 g and 8.47 mL
For multiplication and division the answer can have no more significant figures than are in the measurement with the fewest number of significant figures.
Sample problem 2-5 page 49
5. Conversion Factors and Significant Figures
Conversion factors are considered exact and so do not limit calculations by their significant figures.
e.g. to convert 4.608 m to cm using the conversion factor 100 cm/m, we would not limit our answer to three significant figures because of the 100 in 100cm/m.
We would express our answer with four significant figures to match the number of significant figures in 4.608 m.
C: Scientific Notation
form of scientific notation
When numbers are written in scientific notation only the significant figures are shown as the M
When converting a number to scientific notation:
a) Moving the decimal point to the right gives a negative exponent of 10.
b) Moving the decimal point to the left gives a positive exponent of 10.
1. Mathematical Operations Using Scientific Notation
a) Addition and Subtraction
both must have same exponent
if not adjust number so both have the same exponent
When done this, M's are added or subtracted, the x 10 remains the same and the exponent remains the same.
the units remain the same
multiply the M's
the x 10 remains the same
add the exponents algebraically
multiply the units e.g. cm x cm = cm squared
divide the M's
x 10 remains the same
subtract the exponents algebraically (numerator minus the denominator)
units remain e.g. grams divided by mole = g/mole
D: Using Sample Problems
skip but expect the following:
show all given information
show conversion factor
set up problem
show unit cancellation
give answer with correct units
draw a box around the answer
E: Direct Proportion
direct proportion - definition
y/x = k or y = k x
graph of direct proportion
Table 2-7 page 55 and figure 2-11 page 55
F: Inverse Proportion
Inverse Proportion - definition
x y = k
type of graph
table 2-8 page 56 and figure 2-12 page 57
Mass is the amount of matter in an object. ba
a) M represents the significant figure of the measurement;
b) n represents the number of places the decimal point was moved to get the measurement into scientific notation format;
c) x 10 is always present in scientific notation.