Modern Chemistry - Chapter 1

Matter and Change

  1. Chemistry is a Physical Science

    1. Science

      1. biological

      2. physical

    2. Chemistry

      1. Definition

      2. Questions to ask

      3. How the questions are answered - instruments

    3. Branches of chemistry and their definitions

      1. definition of chemical

      2. definite compostion

      3. properties

    4. Basic Research

      1. serendipity

    5. Applied Research

    6. Technological Development

      1. after basic research

      2. Homework 1.1

  2. Matter and Its Properties

      1. matter v mass - definitions

      2. volume - definition

      3. general properties of matter

        1. Basic Building Blocks of Matter

          1. atom - definition

          2. element - definition

          3. compound - definition

          4. molecule - definition

          5. Figure 1-3A page 10

          6. figure 1-3b page 10

        2. Properties and Changes in Matter

          1. identification purposes

          2. separation purposes

          3. groups that share common properties - not all to the same extent

          4. examples

        3. Extensive Properties - definition - examples

        4. Intensive properties - definition - examples

        5. figure 1-5 page 12

        6. Physical properties - definition - examples

          1. physical change - definition

          2. changes of state

          3. four physical states of matter - volume and shape

          4. differences based on distance between particles, attractive forces, motion

          5. figure 1-6 page 13

          6. list different changes of state

          7. gas v vapor - definitions

          8. liquefaction v condensation - definitions

        7. Chemical properties - definition - examples

          1. chemical change - definition

          2. figure 1-4 page 11

          3. figure 1-7 page 14

          4. mercury (II) oxide --->

          5. reactant - definition

          6. product - definition

          7. meaning of --->

          8. Law of Conservation of Mass - statement

        8. Energy and Changes in Matter

          1. always a factor - see more of this later in year

          2. forms of energy - examples

          3. endothermic process - definition - energy of products v reactants

          4. exothermic process - definition - energy of products v reactants

          5. Law of Conservation of Energy - statement

        9. Classification of Matter

          1. figure 1-8 page 15

          2. mixture - definition - examples

          3. homogeneous mixture - definition - examples

          4. heterogeneous mixture - definition - examples

          5. how we can separate mixtures

          6. figure 1-9 page 16

          7. pure substance - definition - examples

          8. compound - definition - examples

          9. element - definition - examples

          10. figure 1-10 page 17

          11. pure substance v mixtures

        10. Laboratory Chemicals and Purity

          1. table 1-1 page 18

          2. Homework 1.2

  3. Elements

    1. Groups that have similar properties.

    2. Four general categories.

      1. Periodic Table

        1. squares with symbol and, at minimum, atomic number

        2. may have atomic mass also

        3. symbol - definition

        4. atomic number increases by one as you move from left to right

        5. symbols - Berzelius, rules for these abbreviations

        6. Latin and Greek names - table 1-2 page 20

        7. period, series - definition - numbered from 1 to 7

        8. family, group - definition - numbered from 1 to 18

        9. lanthanide and actinide series - where and why

      2. Two major type of elements

        1. metals - where

          1. four properties and definitions

          2. mercury - Hg

          3. gold - Au - 1 oz of gold can be stretched into a wire five (5) miles long or hammered into a sheet 100 feet square.

          4. read "Copper - Cu - A Representative Metal"

        2. nonmetals - where

          1. two main properties and definitions

          2. bromine - Br

          3. mostly gases except carbon (C), phosphorus (P), selenium (Se), sulfur (S)and iodine (I) which are solids at room temperature (20 degrees Celsius)

          4. Read Phosphorus (P): A Representative Nonmetal

        3. metalloids

          1. definition

          2. red stepped line

          3. solids at room temperature

          4. semiconductors

        4. inert/noble gases - group 18

          1. Xe and F

          2. neon (Ne), krypton (Kr), and xenon (Xe)- lighting

          3. He

          4. Homework 1.3

  4. Definitions

Chemistry is the study of the composition, structure, and properties of matter and the changes matter undergoes.

Organic chemistry is the study of most carbon containing compounds.

Inorganic chemistry is the study of all substances not classified as organic, mainly those compounds that do not contain carbon.

Physical chemistry is the study of the properties and changes of matter and their relation to energy.

Analytical chemistry is the identification of the components and composition of materials.

Biochemistry is the study of substances and processes occurring in living things.

Theoretical chemistry is the use of mathematics and computers to understand the principles behind observed chemical behavior and to design and predict the properties of new compounds.

A chemical is any substance that has a definite composition.

Basic research is research that is carried out for the sake of increasing knowledge.

Applied research is research that is carried out to solve a problem.

Technological development involves the production and use of products that improve our quality of life.

Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space.

Mass is a measure of the amount of matter in an object.

Volume is the amount of three dimensional space an object occupies.

An atom is the smallest unit of an element that maintains the properties of that element.

An element is a pure substance made of only one kind of atom.

A compound is a substance that is made from the atoms of two or more elements that are chemically bonded.

A molecule is the smallest unit of an element or compound that retains all of the properties of that element or compound.

Extensive properties depend on the amount of matter that is present.

Intensive properties do not depend on the amount of matter present.

Physical property is a property that can be observed or measured without changing the identity of the substance.

Physical change is a change that does not involve a change in the identity of the substance. (appearance may change)

Change of state is a physical change of a substance from one physical state to another. e.g. solid to liquid or liquid to vapor, etc.

A chemical property is a property that can only be determined by changing the identity of the substance.

A chemical change (chemical reaction) is a change in which one or more substances are converted into different substances.

Reactants are the substances on the left side of a chemical reaction.

Products are the substances on the right of a chemical reaction.

Law of Conservation of Mass: Mass cannot be created or destroyed.

Endothermic process is one in which energy is absorbed.

Exothermic process is one in which energy is given off.

Law of Conservation of Energy states that the total energy in a chemical or physical process remains the same -- energy cannot be created or destroyed.

A mixture is a blend of two or more kinds of matter, each of which retains its own identity and properties.

A homogeneous mixture is a mixture that has uniform composition. Also called a solution.

A heterogeneous mixture is a mixture that does not have uniform composition.

A pure substance is a substance that has a fixed composition and consists of one particular type of matter.

A compound is a pure substance that consists of two or more elements chemically combined.

An element is a pure substance that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by ordinary chemical means.

A group or family is a vertical column on the periodic table.

A series or period is a horizontal row on the periodic table.